Bluewater Optometry

Eye Disease Diagnosis & Management in Sarnia

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Disease Protection Requires Regular Eye Exams

Many eye diseases advance slowly over time and with no symptoms. Because so many diseases can cause long-term vision impairments or even blindness. But many tests performed during routine eye exams are designed specifically to detect eye diseases before they become a problem, making eye exams an important tool for protecting your eyesight.

Our eye exams at Blue Water Optometry include comprehensive disease diagnosis and management. Book your appointment today and protect your eyes from long-term consequences.

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Common Eye Diseases


Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that progressively damage the optic nerve. Since the optic nerve relays visual information to your brain, damage to it can cause irreversible vision loss and blindness.

There are several types of glaucoma, most commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). However, some types occur even when IOP remains within the normal range.

Many forms of glaucoma develop without symptoms, making this eye disease especially dangerous. At Blue Water Optometry, we include glaucoma testing during every eye exam to ensure we catch this disease before it causes long-term damage.

Glaucoma Tests

Non-contact tonometry (NCT), colloquially known as the “air puff test,” measures IOP by puffing a small amount of air against the cornea. It’s non-invasive and quick, making it a popular tool.

The Goldmann applanation tonometer also measures IOP but uses a small cone to temporarily flatten the cornea. This test is extremely accurate and is considered the “gold standard” for glaucoma testing. However, because it makes contact with the eye, it does require numbing drops to ensure comfort.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease that causes deterioration of the macula, the part of the retina responsible for detailed central vision and colour vision. If left untreated, AMD can lead to central vision loss.

There are 2 types of AMD.


Dry AMD is the most common type of AMD and accounts for 90% of cases. It progresses slowly over time, with symptoms and vision loss occurring gradually. It’s often associated with drusen, yellow fatty protein deposits under the retina.


Wet AMD is less common than dry AMD, accounting for about 10% of cases but responsible for 90% of AMD-related blindness. Symptoms develop rapidly and occur when weak, abnormal blood vessels break and leak blood and fluid into the macula. Wet AMD is considered a medical emergency and requires immediate attention.

Diabetes can cause significant damage to the eyes, increasing your risk of diabetic eye disease. These diseases include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, cataracts, and glaucoma.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy occurs when high blood sugar levels damage and block the delicate blood vessels that supply the retina. This damage can weaken the vessels, making them bulge or leak into the retina.

As the disease advances, blood vessels close, causing new ones to grow. These new abnormal blood vessels can lead to a series of complications that impact your ocular health.

Diabetic Macular Edema

Diabetes can lead to swelling in your macula, the part of the retina responsible for detailed central vision. This swelling is called diabetic macular edema and can destroy your sharp vision. It’s a common complication of diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic Eye Disease Testing

Fundus photography is a non-invasive diagnostic test that uses an advanced camera to take high-definition images of the interior surface of the eye. It’s a useful tool for diagnosing problems with the retina, retinal vasculature, optic disc, macula, and fundus.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology that uses light to take high-definition, cross-sections of the inside of the eye. These images can help us diagnose problems with the retina or optic nerve.

Cataracts are the clouding of the eye’s natural lens. Although they’re common and one of the most treatable eye conditions, they remain the leading cause of blindness in Canada.

Early-stage cataracts don’t generally affect your vision too much, and can be managed with with glasses or contact lenses. However, as they continue to grow, they may start preventing you from performing detailed activities like reading or driving. In this case, your cataracts may require correction through cataract surgery.

Protect Your Eyesight with an Eye Exam at Blue Water Optometry

An eye disease diagnosis can be a life-changing event. But the earlier a disease is caught, the more successful treatment is, so we’ve made booking an eye exam with Blue Water Optometry incredibly easy!

Either book online or call our office. Our friendly staff will take care of the rest.

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Come See Us Today

We’re on the corner of Exmouth Street and Napier Street, right across from Norm Perry Park.

Our Address

251 Exmouth Street
Sarnia, ON N7T 5M7

Contact Us

Clinic Hours

9 AM4:30 PM
9 AM5 PM
9 AM4 PM
9 AM5 PM
9 AM4:30 PM

We are closed for all statutory holidays, and long weekends.

Hours are subject to change without notice.

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